R&D expenditure in value (Rands) for each province from 2008/9 to 2017/18. Gauteng R&D expenditure shows an overall upward trend and is the highest in comparison to other provinces. Gauteng R&D expenditure was R17.32 billion in 2017/18, up by 5.5% from 2016/17 &D expenditure in the Western Cape is the second highest in comparison to other provinces and shows a significant increase between 2014/15 and 2017/18. Western Cape R&D expenditure was R9.33 billion in 2017/18. All provinces increased their rand value expenditure on R&D in 2017/18. KZN R&D expenditure was R4.17 billion in 2017/18, up by 14.7% from 2016/17.