The figure above shows GERD as a percentage of GDP for KZN, Gauteng Province (GP) and the Western Cape (WC). The figure illustrates that for KZN, GERD as a percentage of GDP has oscillated between 0.45% and 0.53% for the past 8 years (2010-2017). This is lower than national R&D expenditure as a percentage of GDP which was 0.82% in 2016/17. However, both GP and WC had higher rates in 2016/17. WC had higher expenditure rates than both KZN and GP in 2016/17 at 1.32%.